In almost all criminal cases, there arises the need to examine the crime scene, the forensic evidence found there and to produce findings from this evidence.
The advantage of forensic evidence opposite other pieces of evidence is that forensic evidence cannot be distorted, it is not subject to the authority of any person, and it does not have any agenda of its own.
The prosecutor’s office relies on the police apparatus (and mainly on their DIFS - Department of Identification and Forensic Service) to produce the forensic evidence to be submitted in court.
The experts at the Institute of Forensic Science are specialists concerning all examinations of forensic evidence; they can handle this evidence in court, explain it and the meaning of the results obtained from it and represent the possible scenarios on the basis of the evidence and its results. From this point of view, the Institute of Forensic Science fulfills the same task for the defense which the police expert fulfill for the prosecutor’s office.
Crime Scene Analysis
The scene of a crime (or the scene of an event) is the location where most of the forensic evidence is found.
Proper work at the crime scene and the correct analysis of the evidence make it possible to reach conclusions about possible scenarios concerning the event and even offer the possibility to choose the most likely scenario from among a number of possible versions.
The specialists at the Institute of Forensic Science have the ability to check all evidence from a crimes scene, to analyze it and to reach conclusions about possible scenarios.
The experts at the Institute of Forensic Science are forensic specialists who were trained in analyzing evidence from crime scenes as well as analyzing of bloodstains pattern.
The specialists at the Institute of Forensic Science are able to determine whether a possible scenario offered by the indictment is reasonable and they are equally able to determine which scenario is the most likely.
The criminal section in the Institute of Forensic Science deals with two main topics:
Inspection and analysis of scenes
The crime scene is the place where most of the forensic evidence is found, and its correct analysis is the main key to understanding the incident, and determining a possible scenario.
Inspection and analysis of the scene allow the following issues to be answered
Analysis of blood spot formations
receiving information regarding the location of various people involved in the incident and information regarding the manner of injury to the victim. Correct analysis of bloodstain formations can provide information regarding movement directions.
Based on DNA tests, cell phone tracking analysis and security cameras.
Analysis of blood spot formations
The location was made based on blood stain analysis, DNA tests, firing direction tests, and tests of various marks left by those involved in the scene.
Analysis of firing directions is performed with the use of a dedicated kit and ballistic calculations. In this analysis, the shooter can be placed in all the possible places to shoot and check the feasibility of these places.
Location of various involved in the arena
Based on bloodstain analysis, footprint testing, and escape route analysis.
Possible scenarios for the event
Scenarios were done only after receiving findings from the various laboratories that examined the exhibits from the scene. The analysis takes into account all possibilities. To reach the right scenario, appropriate tests are performed in the arena and laboratories.
The experts of the Institute of Forensic Science have the ability to determine whether a specific scenario proposed by an indictment or statement of claim/defense is probable, and they also have the ability to determine what the probable scenario was in the event in question.
The Institute of Forensic Science carries out simulations
of crime scene scenarios.
The indictments presented in court are supposed to be backed up by forensic evidence and results. These pieces of evidence and findings are transferred to the prosecutor’s office by the police experts.
The specialists at the Institute of Forensic Science are able to check all results found by the police experts and to tell whether they are correct.
The specialists at the Institute of Forensic Science have comprehensive forensic knowledge and laboratories equipped with the latest technology at their disposal, and they are able to check and examine all forensic evidence connected to a specific criminal case.
In the opinion tests of the opposing experts, a number of issues are answered
The scope and order of the tests
The question is examined whether all possible tests were conducted to substantiate the opinion. Also examined is the question of whether the tests were performed in the correct order of work, and what the meaning of the order of the tests is with regard to drawing conclusions.
Adapting the test methods to the disputed questions
The question is examined whether the tests performed are the appropriate tests, or whether other tests should have been performed in order to draw the correct conclusions.
the correctness of the conclusions
The conclusions of the opposing experts are examined and an answer is given as to whether the conclusions are correct and whether they correspond to the findings of the tests or whether other conclusions or additional possible conclusions can be reached from the findings.
The areas of examination in criminal cases
include the following:
Crime scene analysis
The analysis allows the determination of the most likely scenario, and the determination of alternatives to the indictment, using laboratory test findings to prove the alleged scenario.
The Institute of Forensic Science carries out authenticity tests of documents, as well as handwriting comparison. Checking the authenticity of documents at the Institute of Forensic Science is a laboratory test that makes use of several scientific fields for the purpose of drawing well-founded. conclusions.
Traces and marks – tool marks, footprints (shoes)
Comparing marks (including shoe prints) allows knowledge about the tool that created the mark, or even to determine the identity of the particular tool that left the mark in the arena.
Comparison and development of fingerprints
At the Institute of Forensic Science there is an option to compare fingerprints, and to develop fingerprints on various exhibits.
These tests are tests of both comparing signs, and comparing materials and how they are distributed in the arena. In the tests, it is possible to determine the feasibility of firing from a loaded position and to determine the most likely firing directions.
At the Institute of Forensic Science, it is possible to perform an analysis of the findings of DNA tests and to determine the appropriateness to the circumstances of the incident. It is also possible at the Institute to perform independent DNA tests to check the correctness of scenarios and the plausibility of scenarios.
The Forensic Science Institute has the knowledge to analyze media studies, and determine their level of accuracy. At the institute it is possible to perform an independent test of cellular localization using several techniques.
Analysis of photos and film clips
At the Forensic Science Institute, authenticity tests of video and audio files are performed, and scenario analysis is
Drugs and poisons
At the Institute of Forensic Science, drug analyzes are performed in order to determine the correctness of conclusions in criminal cases. Quantitative tests for drugs are also performed at the institute.
Investigation of traffic accide
Traffic accident analysis at the Institute of Forensic Science is done by objective means using advanced imaging methods.