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Documents of all kinds have been accompanying mankind since the dawn of history.

A large part of communication around the world is based on documents.

There are documents everywhere people know how to read and write

Every document consists of two components

The substrate on which it is written

The written or printed material

In the course of time, there was development both in regard to the material the substrate is made of (from stone and clay tablets via papyrus to paper) and the utensils used for writing (a number of different kinds of pens, different kinds of ink and a number of ways to print.

A forensic examination of documents checks the parameters characteristic of the document in question and makes it possible to reach the following conclusions:
A forensic examination of documents checks all the parameters that appear in the document.
The forensic examination allows drawing conclusions on the matter
These parameters enable us to reach conclusions in regard to the document’s authenticity and the way it passed until it reached its final state.

document authenticity

Documents are an integral part of our daily routine. The importance of documents is enormous in all areas of life. Documents establish ownership of land and money, documents confirm loyalty to the source, and many times documents anchor agreements between parties - agreements that can shape destinies.

The Institute of Forensic Science is the only place in Israel where all layers of the document are examined
Under one roof while providing a comprehensive answer to the question of document authenticity:


The following questions can be answered in paper tests


When checking the authenticity of documents at the Institute of Forensic Science, the following questions can be answered, among others

Does the document correspond to the date that appears on it?

Is the document edited as a single unit or by one editor

What are the writing/printing tools used in the document

Does the handwriting/signature match the handwriting/signature of a specified person

Are several types of writing or printing materials used?

Does the document have parts that were added to it later?

Is the document written sequentially?

Have some pages of the document been replaced with other pages?

Are there parts in the document that were copied/transferred to it from another place?

Black Smudge In White Background

Ink age and ink comparison

The Forensic Science Institute is the only place in Israel where ink age assessment tests are performed.

Ink is a mixture containing dyes, solvents, volatile substances and substances whose function is to improve adhesion to the paper and facilitate writing. Ink is found both in pens of their various types, both in stamps and in printers.

The test to estimate the age of ink is based on the analysis of the relative state of the volatile substances in the ink.

The test is a chemical test during which part of the ink is removed for the purpose of the test.

An ink age assessment test can decide unequivocally between two versions.

Ink comparison is a process that combines both optical and fluorescent tests as well as chemical tests.

The Forensic Science Institute is the only place in Israel that performs both optical and fluorescent tests  and chemical tests when comparing ink.


By comparing inks you can answer the following questions

An ink age assessment test can decide unequivocally between two versions.
Typography Poster Print

order of appearance

It is often claimed that parts were added to the document at a later date than the alleged editing date.

One of the ways to check this claim is by checking the relative order of appearance of the parts in dispute compared to the other parts.

Testing the relative order of appearance consists of microscopic tests combined with chemical tests.


In this test you can get answers to the following questions

Paper Abstract

Editing check and creation dates

This test is true for both physical and digital documents.


In this test you can get answers to the following questions

The issues dealt with by the document review department are divided into several areas of work

Wills and inheritances

The correctness of wills or sales documents is checked without consideration.

car accidents

The authenticity of various documents submitted as evidence in car accident cases is checked.

Medicine and health

The correctness of medical records is checked.

The department examines documents whose inspection by the police formed the basis for filing an indictment.

Documents submitted by those involved are examined in order to examine their veracity and compatibility with the alleged claims.

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